Lesson From Bukhari Shareef
بابُ: مَنْ رَفَعَ صَوْتَهُ بِالْعلْمِ
Chapter 3 : Who raises his voice in (conveying) knowledge.
Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
Hadhrat Shaikh-ul-Hind says that it is against the dignity of a prophet to make noise and to talk loudly. In this Hadith it is shown that one can talk loudly with a lashing tongue in order to convey the message of Deen with firmness.
Hadith No. 59
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ عَارِمُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ عَنْ أَبِى بِشْرٍ عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ مَاهَكَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قَالَ تَخَلَّفَ عَنَّا النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فِى سَفْرَةٍ سَافَرْنَاهَا ، فَأَدْرَكَنَا وَقَدْ أَرْهَقَتْنَا الصَّلاَةُ وَنَحْنُ نَتَوَضَّأُ فَجَعَلْنَا نَمْسَحُ عَلَى أَرْجُلِنَا ، فَنَادَى بِأَعْلَى صَوْتِهِ وَيْلٌ لِلأَعْقَابِ مِنَ النَّارِ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثًا .
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr (RA)
Once the Prophet remained behind us in a journey. He joined us while we were performing ablution for the prayer which was over-due. We were just passing wet hands over our feet (and not washing them properly) so the Prophet addressed us in a loud voice and said twice or thrice, "Save your heels from the fire."
Abdullah bin Amr says that once they were on a journey and got late for the Salaah; they tried to make Wudu in haste, and probably water was available in less quantity. In this hastiness the heels of some people remained dry; Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), who was coming from behind saw that and addressed them twice or thrice in a loud voice that they should save their heels from fire, because that part of the feet which is not washed properly during Wudu will be made to taste Hellfire.
To wash the feet in Wudu is obligatory
Imam Tirmidhi (RA) after quoting this Hadith says:
قال فقه هذا الحديث أنه لا يجوز المسح الرجلين
"This Hadith shows that Masah (passing of wet hands) on the feet in Wudu is not permissible". (Sunan at-Tirmidhi)
باب قَوْلِ الْمُحَدِّثِ حَدَّثَنَا أَوْ أَخْبَرَنَا وَأَنْبَأَنَا .
وَقَالَ لَنَا الْحُمَيْدِىُّ كَانَ عِنْدَ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ حَدَّثَنَا وَأَخْبَرَنَا وَأَنْبَأَنَا وَسَمِعْتُ وَاحِدًا . تحفة ب وَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ حَدَّثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وَهُوَ الصَّادِقُ الْمَصْدُوقُ . وَقَالَ شَقِيقٌ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِىَّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - كَلِمَةً . وَقَالَ حُذَيْفَةُ حَدَّثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - حَدِيثَيْنِ . وَقَالَ أَبُو الْعَالِيَةِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فِيمَا يَرْوِى عَنْ رَبِّهِ . وَقَالَ أَنَسٌ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يَرْوِيهِ عَنْ رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ . وَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يَرْوِيهِ عَنْ رَبِّكُمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ .
Chapter 4 : The sayings of the narrator conveying the Hadith: With the words حدثنا (narrated) or أخبرنا (told us) and أنبأنا (informed us).
And Al-Humaidi said that to Ibn Uyaiynah, the words حدثنا, أخبرنا, أنبأنا were synonymous. And Ibn Mas'ood said, "Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told us (حدثنا) and he (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was the truest. And Shaqeeq quoted Abdullah saying, "I listened (سمعت) from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) a word". And Hudaifah (RA) said, "Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told us (حدثنا) two Ahaadith. And Abul Aaliyah (RA) quoted from Ibn Abbas (RA) and he quoted from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and he quoted from Allah. And Anas quoted from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), who quoted from Allah (with the word عن). And Abu Hurairah (RA) quoted from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) who quoted from the Lord, the Exalted and Glorious.
Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
It has already been stated that after Iman, knowledge has been given high importance in Islam. Now Imam Bukhari wants to tell us that the reliable knowledge is only that which is quoted from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) with authentic chain of narrators (Sanad). It is a well accepted fact near the learned scholars of Islam that the Sanad or authentic chain of narrators is an important thing in the Shari'ah. Here Imam Bukhari shows that the words like حدثنا, أخبرنا or أنبانا etc, while narrating a Hadith are also taken from the Qur'an and Hadith and that these are not fabricated by the narrators themselves. He also is of the opinion that these three words are synonymous, while some scholars believe that the words حدثنا and أخبرنا denote a stronger authenticity than أنبانا. Ibn Hajr says that the narrators of Hadith use the word ‘حدثنا' if they have personally heard the Hadith from their teacher and ‘akhbarana' if they read the Hadith in presence of their teacher.
He further says that the purpose of adopting this title for this Hadith is that this Hadith has been quoted in different chains with tall these three words i.e., حدثنا, أخبرنا and أنبانا.
Narrating Hadith with the word "Un" (عن)
When the Hadith is quoted with the word "Un", from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), this Hadith is also taken as authentic. Whatever Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) says is actually quoted from Allah , as Allah says:
وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى
"Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire". (53.003)
But what he (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) quotes from Allah with the word "Un" (عن ربه)that is called the Hadith-e-Qudsi (حديث قدسي).
Hadith No. 60
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إِنَّ مِنَ الشَّجَرِ شَجَرَةً لاَ يَسْقُطُ وَرَقُهَا ، وَإِنَّهَا مَثَلُ الْمُسْلِمِ ، فَحَدِّثُونِى مَا هِىَ . فَوَقَعَ النَّاسُ فِى شَجَرِ الْبَوَادِى . قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَوَقَعَ فِى نَفْسِى أَنَّهَا النَّخْلَةُ ، فَاسْتَحْيَيْتُ ثُمَّ قَالُوا حَدِّثْنَا مَا هِىَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ هِىَ النَّخْلَةُ .
Narrated Ibn 'Umar (RA)
Allah's Apostle said, "Amongst the trees, there is a tree, the leaves of which do not fall and is like a Muslim. Tell me the name of that tree." Everybody started thinking about the trees of the desert areas. And I thought of the date-palm tree but felt shy to answer the others then asked, "What is that tree, O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied, "It is the date-palm tree."
Ibn Umar, when he was just a young boy, says that one day he was sitting with senior Sahaba al Kiram; Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) asked the Sahaba, "which tree is like a Muslim and whose leaves do not fall?" The senior Sahaba could not immediately guess about this tree, Ibn Umar says that though he was young, he thought that it was the date tree but he did not dare to open his mouth in presence of senior Sahaba, then Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) himself told them that it was the date tree.
Similarities between a Muslim and the date tree
Ulema have suggested many similarities , viz.,
Both are straight and upright and resemble in Istiqamat (استقامت)
Both have very deep roots, the roots of the faith of a Muslim (إيمان) are very deep in his Qalb. It is reported in Tirmidhi , Nasai and Ibn Hibban on the authority of Anas that once Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) recited the verse: كَلِمَةً طَيِّبَةً كَشَجَرَةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ أَصْلُهَا ثَابِتٌ وَفَرْعُهَا فِي السَّمَاءِ Then he (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "it is date tree".
Each and every part of a date tree is useful, like its fruits, both ripe as well as unripe, leaves and stem etc. It is also used for medicinal purposes. Similarly every state of a Muslim is useful for him. His eating, drinking, sleeping, walking, earning livelihood are all counted as worship, hence useful for him.
Some say that both have male and female genders.
Some say that the date tree resembles a man because if its upper part is cut it becomes dead.
Some say that both have the attribute of love.
باب طَرْحِ الإِمَامِ الْمَسْأَلَةَ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ لِيَخْتَبِرَ مَا عِنْدَهُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ
Chapter 5 : The posing of a problem by the teacher to his students to test their knowledge.
Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
In this Baab Imam Bukhari has got the previous Hadith but has added a new title to this Baab. By doing so he wants to convey yet another thing which is important for learning and teaching of knowledge, i.e., the teacher should test the student. It clearly shows how significant the "Tarjamatul Baab" or titles of the chapters are important in this book.
Hadith No. 61
حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ مَخْلَدٍ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ دِينَارٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قَالَ إِنَّ مِنَ الشَّجَرِ شَجَرَةً لاَ يَسْقُطُ وَرَقُهَا ، وَإِنَّهَا مَثَلُ الْمُسْلِمِ ، حَدِّثُونِى مَا هِىَ . قَالَ فَوَقَعَ النَّاسُ فِى شَجَرِ الْبَوَادِى . قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ فَوَقَعَ فِى نَفْسِى أَنَّهَا النَّخْلَةُ ، ثُمَّ قَالُوا حَدِّثْنَا مَا هِىَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ هِىَ النَّخْلَةُ
Narrated Ibn 'Umar (RA)
The Prophet said, "Amongst the trees, there is a tree, the leaves of which do not fall and is like a Muslim. Tell me the name of that tree." Everybody started thinking about the trees of the desert areas. And I thought of the date-palm tree. The others then asked, "Please inform us what is that tree, O Allah's Apostle?" He replied, "It is the date-palm tree."
The teacher should test his students
By getting this Hadith here Imam Bukhari wants to impress that the teacher should off and on test his students, put questions before them in a little difficult way. By this the teacher gets an idea of the capability of his students.
Sometimes a junior knows more than his senior
Ibn Umar was just ten years old that time and he thought about the right answer whereas it did not strike the senior people.