Terminology used to label the status of narrator of Hadith

Chapter No.: 

A) Words of Ta'deel (ألفاض تعديل)

1. Thabat-un Hujjatun (ثبت حجة): Of high status, 'Sanad' for others .

2. Thabatun Hafiz (ثبت حافظ): Of high status, of very good, memory.

3. Thabatun Mutaqin (ثبت متن): Of high status and very strong.

4. Thiqatun Thiqatun (ثقة ثقة): Highly reliable.

5. Thiqatun (ثقة): Reliable.

6. Thabatun (ثابت): Which cannot be unproved, persisting.

7. Sadooq (صدوق): Highly truthful.

8. La-Ba'sa Fihi (لا بأس في): No problem in him.

9. Mahluhu Sidiq (محله الصدق): His place value is truth.

10. Jaidul Hadith (جيد الحديث): Good in Hadith.

11. Saalih-ul-Hadith (صحيح الحديث): Good in narration.

B) Words of Jarah (ألفاض جرح)

1. Dajjal (دجال): Highly cheating.

2. Kazaab (كذاب): Great liar.

3. Wazaa' (وضاع): Fabricator of Hadtih.

4. Yaza-ul-Hadith (يضع الحديث): Fabricates Hadith.

5. Mutham bil Kizib (متهم بالكذاب): Has been blamed of lying.

6. Matrook (متروك): Worth shunning away.

7. Lysa-bi-Siqatin (ليس بثقة): Not relaible.

8. Sakatoo-Anhu (سكتوا عنه): Silent about him.

9. Zahib-ul-Hadith (ذاهب الحديث): Wastes Hadith.

10. Fihi-Nazar (فيه النظر): Worth probing into.

11. Dhaeef Jidah (ضعيف جدا): Very weak.

12. Dhuafoo (ضعفوا): Have been labelled weak.

13. Dhaeef (ضعيف): Weak.

14. Layeen (لعين): Soft in memory.

15. Saye-ul-Hifz (سئي الحفظ): Bad in memory.

Pre-requisites which make a Raawi or narrator of Hadith acceptable or authentic

A) Adalat (عدالة): It means that a Raawi should be a Muslim, sane, matured, respectable, knowledgeable, dignified and must be avoiding all bad things which are against Deen, respectability and dignity. He should not be indulging in any acts of Kufr, Shirk, Bid'at and Fisq etc. If occasionally he has done some trivial sin, that will not effect his Adalat.

Sources of knowing somebody’s Adalat

1. Ulema of Ta'deel and Jarah as quoted above, should have confined his Adalat.

2. Being famous amongst reputed Ulemas like four great Imams or authors of Siha-Sita.

Factors which make Adalat defective

1. Lie.

2. Blame of having lied.

3. Bid'at.

4. Fisq.

5. Ignorance.

B) Zabt (ضبط): (Methods of preserving Hadith):

Under this heading it is seen with what keenness and interest the narrator has learned the Hadith and then what methods he has adopted for preserving it. If and how has he memorised it. How good is his memory power and if he has written it, how accurate he has been.

Factors which make Zabt Defective

1. Frequent mistakes.

2. Bad memory.

3. Ignorance.

4. Frequent uncertainty.

5. Opposition of authentic narrators.