Lesson From The Bukhari Sharief

باب الْغَضَبِ فِى الْمَوْعِظَةِ وَالتَّعْلِيمِ إِذَا رَأَى مَا يَكْرَهُ .
Chapter 28 : To be furious while preaching or teaching if one sees what one hates.

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
Here Imam Bukhari wants to say that the teacher can show his anger to the students if and when needed. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has been the most polite and kind teacher to his followers i.e., Sahaaba-Kiraam. Knowing this extra ordinary politeness of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), one could think that a teacher should never loose his temper and always remain polite in his teaching. We all know that people differ in their nature, some are very sensitive and hence don't need any kind of harsh words in order to accomplish any job entrusted to them, while others are very insensitive and they come to senses only after harsh language is used against them.

Hadith No. 89
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِى خَالِدٍ عَنْ قَيْسِ بْنِ أَبِى حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِى مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِىِّ قَالَ قَالَ رَجُلٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، لاَ أَكَادُ أُدْرِكُ الصَّلاَةَ مِمَّا يُطَوِّلُ بِنَا فُلاَنٌ ، فَمَا رَأَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فِى مَوْعِظَةٍ أَشَدَّ غَضَبًا مِنْ يَوْمِئِذٍ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ، إِنَّكُمْ مُنَفِّرُونَ ، فَمَنْ صَلَّى بِالنَّاسِ فَلْيُخَفِّفْ ، فَإِنَّ فِيهِمُ الْمَرِيضَ وَالضَّعِيفَ وَذَا الْحَاجَةِ
Narrated Abu Mas'ud al-Ansaari (RA)
Once a man said to Allah's Apostle "O Allah's Apostle! I may not attend the (compulsory congregational) prayer because so and so (the Imam) prolongs the prayer when he leads us for it. The narrator added: "I never saw the Prophet more furious in giving advice than he was on that day. The Prophet said, "O people! Some of you make others dislike good deeds (the prayers). So whoever leads the people in prayer should shorten it because among them there are the sick the weak and the needy (having some jobs to do)."

Words of Hadith : "Once a man said to Allah's Apostle"
Who was this man? Ibn Hajr has first mentioned his name as Hazam bin Ubi bin Ka'b but latter he said that he could not know his name.

"O Allah's Apostle! I may ...... leads us for it."
Who was the Imam against whom the complaint was made? Two names have been mentioned, Mu'az bin Jabal and Ubi bin Ka'b. Ibn Hajr is of the opinion that the second one is correct i.e., Ubi bin Ka'b. The incident quoted about Mu'az bin Jabal is of Isha Salaah whereas the incident mentioned in this Hadith is of Fajar Salaah. A man came to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and complained against his Imam who used to recite long Surahs in Salaah. This man was finding it difficult to attend the congregational Salaah after that Imam, so he complained to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about it.

"I never saw the Prophet more furious in giving advice than he was on that day."
Allah Ta'ala says,
يريد بكم اليسر و لا يريد بكم العسر
Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire difficulty for you.
In the same way Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has been most kind to his Ummah and was always keen to see that his Ummah should not put themselves in unnecessary troubles. Allah Ta'ala testifies that in the Qur'an,
لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ
Now hath come unto you a Messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the Believers is he most kind and merciful. (9.128)
This Hadith shows the glimpse of this extreme merciful nature of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). He becomes very angry on listening that an Imam is making it difficult for the people to join the congregational Salaah by reciting prolong Surahs and ordered
"So whoever leads the people in prayer should shorten it, because among them there are the sick, the weak and the needy (having some necessary jobs to do)."

Lessons from this Hadith
One should always try to make things easy for himself and also for others.
An Imam should keep in consideration the people offering Salaah with him.
A teacher can use anger as a tool to convey his message.
It is not fair to pin point a wrong doer in front of others. it is better to make a general admonition as Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) did not name that Imam but made a general admonition in his Khutba speech.

Hadith No. 90
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلاَلٍ الْمَدِينِىُّ عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ يَزِيدَ مَوْلَى الْمُنْبَعِثِ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ الْجُهَنِىِّ أَنَّ النَّبِىَّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - سَأَلَهُ رَجُلٌ عَنِ اللُّقَطَةِ فَقَالَ اعْرِفْ وِكَاءَهَا - أَوْ قَالَ وِعَاءَهَا - وَعِفَاصَهَا ، ثُمَّ عَرِّفْهَا سَنَةً ، ثُمَّ اسْتَمْتِعْ بِهَا ، فَإِنْ جَاءَ رَبُّهَا فَأَدِّهَا إِلَيْهِ . قَالَ فَضَالَّةُ الإِبِلِ فَغَضِبَ حَتَّى احْمَرَّتْ وَجْنَتَاهُ - أَوْ قَالَ احْمَرَّ وَجْهُهُ - فَقَالَ وَمَا لَكَ وَلَهَا مَعَهَا سِقَاؤُهَا وَحِذَاؤُهَا ، تَرِدُ الْمَاءَ ، وَتَرْعَى الشَّجَرَ ، فَذَرْهَا حَتَّى يَلْقَاهَا رَبُّهَا .قَالَ فَضَالَّةُ الْغَنَمِ قَالَ لَكَ أَوْ لأَخِيكَ أَوْ لِلذِّئْبِ

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani (RA)
A man asked the Prophet about the picking up of a "Luqata" (fallen lost thing). The Prophet replied, "Recognize and remember its tying material and its container, and make public announcement (about it) for one year, then utilize it but give it to its owner if he comes." Then the person asked about the lost camel. On that, the Prophet got angry and his cheeks or his face became red and he said, "You have no concern with it as it has its water container, and its feet and it will reach water, and eat (the leaves) of trees till its owner finds it." The man then asked about the lost sheep. The Prophet replied, "It is either for you or for your brother (another person) or for the wolf."

What is Luqata?
It means a thing that has been lost somewhere and then picked up.

Should it be picked up?
If the Luqata is a perishable thing then it is desirable (Mustahab) to pick it up as per Imam Abu Haniefa and mandatory (Wajib) as per Imam Shafa'ee. If it is not perishable then it is allowable (Mubah) to pick it up as per Imam Abu Haniefa.

"Recognize and remember .... for one year".
This part of Hadith teaches us what should one do with a thing that has been lost and he picks it up. One should remember its outer signs like outer covering , tying material etc. and then he should make announcement about it so that the person who has lost it (i.e., owner) may come to know about it. There is consensus amongst the Ulema that the announcement should be made for one year. There is difference of opinion about those lost things which are either perishable or of trivial nature costing less than ten Dhirhams. Some Ulema say that for such things it is not mandatory to make announcement for one year as it is understood that the owner will not search such things for a whole year.

If the owner of the Luqata is not traced even after a year's announcement
As per Imam Shafa'ee and Imam Ahmad, the person who has picked up the Luqata can use that thing irrespective of the fact whether he is rich or poor. As per Imam Abu Haniefa, only a poor man can use it for his personal use and it is mandatory for a rich man to give that thing in charity and if the owner comes after that, then it is up to the owner whether he (owner) will accept it or not, i.e., if the owner says that he agrees to his thing having been given in charity, then it is alright. If the owner demands his thing back, then it has to be paid back to him.

Hadith No. 91
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْعَلاَءِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ عَنْ بُرَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِى بُرْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِى مُوسَى قَالَ سُئِلَ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ كَرِهَهَا ، فَلَمَّا أُكْثِرَ عَلَيْهِ غَضِبَ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ لِلنَّاسِ سَلُونِى عَمَّا شِئْتُمْ . قَالَ رَجُلٌ مَنْ أَبِى قَالَ أَبُوكَ حُذَافَةُ . فَقَامَ آخَرُ فَقَالَ مَنْ أَبِى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ أَبُوكَ سَالِمٌ مَوْلَى شَيْبَةَ . فَلَمَّا رَأَى عُمَرُ مَا فِى وَجْهِهِ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، إِنَّا نَتُوبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ .

Narrated Abu Musa (RA)
The Prophet was asked about things which he did not like, but when the questioners insisted, the Prophet got angry. He then said to the people, "Ask me anything you like." A man asked, "Who is my father?" The Prophet replied, "Your father is Hudhafa." Then another man got up and said, "Who is my father, O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied, "Your father is Salim, Maula (the freed slave) of Shaiba." So when 'Umar saw that (the anger) on the face of the Prophet he said, "O Allah's Apostle! We repent to Allah (Our offending you)."

One day Sahaaba asked many questions to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which he did not like and he got angry and told them to ask whatever they wanted. This was in fact the expression of anger which all Sahaaba did not understand. One Sahaabi got up and asked Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), "who is my father?" Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied to him, "Hudhafa". This man, who asked this question was Abdullah bin Hudhafa. People were often attributing him to a person other than his father, that is why he asked this question. His mother got very angry with her son and asked him how he imagined that his mother would have done what the ladies of the age of ignorance (Jahijliya) did i.e., adultery. The other person who enquired from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about his father was Sa'd bin Salim, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that his father was Salim, Maula (the freed slave) of Shaiba.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was getting more and more angry while Sahaaba kept asking him such questions. When Hadhrat Umar saw that, he immediately got up and said, "O Apostle of Allah'! We repent to Allah (our offending you)."

Had Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) Ilm-ul-Gaid (knowledge of the unseen)
Does this mean that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was having "Ilm ul Gaib"(knowledge of unseen)?
The answer is no, it does not mean so. It is mentioned in another Hadith also quoted in Sahih al Bukahari at other place, that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:
"Whosoever amongst you likes to ask me questions, he should ask. By Allah , you will not ask me any question which I will not answer till I stand at this place."
The words "till I stand at this place" clearly indicate that it was miracle of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which was given to him at that place on that particular occasion.

باب مَنْ بَرَكَ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ عِنْدَ الإِمَامِ أَوِ الْمُحَدِّثِ
Chapter 29 : One who knelt down on his legs (as one sits in Tashahud) in front of the Imam (religious leader) or Muhaddith (learned scholar of Hadith)

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
Here Imam Bukhari wants to convey if the teacher becomes angry then what should the student do?, he should adopt politeness, as was done here by Hadhrat Umar.

Hadith No. 92
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ عَنِ الزُّهْرِىِّ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِى أَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - خَرَجَ ، فَقَامَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ حُذَافَةَ فَقَالَ مَنْ أَبِى فَقَالَ أَبُوكَ حُذَافَةُ . ثُمَّ أَكْثَرَ أَنْ يَقُولَ سَلُونِى . فَبَرَكَ عُمَرُ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ فَقَالَ رَضِينَا بِاللَّهِ رَبًّا ، وَبِالإِسْلاَمِ دِينًا ، وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - نَبِيًّا ، فَسَكَتَ .

Narrated Anas bin Malik (RA)
One day Allah's Apostle came out (before the people) and 'Abdullah bin Hudhafa stood up and asked (him) "Who is my father?" The Prophet replied, "Your father is Hudhafa." The Prophet told them repeatedly (in anger) to ask him anything they liked. 'Umar knelt down before the Prophet and said thrice, "We accept Allah as (our) Lord and Islam as (our) religion and Muhammad as (our) Prophet." After that the Prophet became silent.

'Umar knelt down before the Prophet and said thrice, "We accept Allah as (our) Lord and Islam as (our) religion and Muhammad as (our) Prophet." After that the Prophet became silent.

Why did Hadhrat Umar (RA) do so and why did he utter such words?
The answer given by Ulema to this question is that when Hadhrat Umar (RA) saw the anger of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), he apprehended that it might beget the wrath of Allah, so he politely knelt before Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and said, "We accept Allah as (our) Lord and Islam as (our) religion and Muhammad as (our) Prophet."