Lesson From The Bukhari Sharief

باب لِيُبَلِّغِ الْعِلْمَ الشَّاهِدُ الْغَائِبَ . قَالَهُ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم
Chapter 37 : Those who are present should convey the knowledge to those who are absent. Ibn Abbas has narrated this from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
In earlier chapter, Imam Bukhari told us that we should try to listen and learn the knowledge and that we should not hesitate to in ask the teacher again and again till we understand nicely. Now in this chapter he says that after learning and understanding the knowledge, it is our prime duty to convey the same to others.

Hadith No. 103
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِى اللَّيْثُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِى سَعِيدٌ عَنْ أَبِى شُرَيْحٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ لِعَمْرِو بْنِ سَعِيدٍ وَهْوَ يَبْعَثُ الْبُعُوثَ إِلَى مَكَّةَ ائْذَنْ لِى أَيُّهَا الأَمِيرُ أُحَدِّثْكَ قَوْلاً قَامَ بِهِ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - الْغَدَ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْفَتْحِ ، سَمِعَتْهُ أُذُنَاىَ وَوَعَاهُ قَلْبِى ، وَأَبْصَرَتْهُ عَيْنَاىَ ، حِينَ تَكَلَّمَ بِهِ ، حَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ مَكَّةَ حَرَّمَهَا اللَّهُ ، وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمْهَا النَّاسُ ، فَلاَ يَحِلُّ لاِمْرِئٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ أَنْ يَسْفِكَ بِهَا دَمًا ، وَلاَ يَعْضِدَ بِهَا شَجَرَةً ، فَإِنْ أَحَدٌ تَرَخَّصَ لِقِتَالِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فِيهَا فَقُولُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَذِنَ لِرَسُولِهِ ، وَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لَكُمْ . وَإِنَّمَا أَذِنَ لِى فِيهَا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ ، ثُمَّ عَادَتْ حُرْمَتُهَا الْيَوْمَ كَحُرْمَتِهَا بِالأَمْسِ ، وَلْيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ الْغَائِبَ . فَقِيلَ لأَبِى شُرَيْحٍ مَا قَالَ عَمْرٌو قَالَ أَنَا أَعْلَمُ مِنْكَ يَا أَبَا شُرَيْحٍ ، لاَ يُعِيذُ عَاصِيًا ، وَلاَ فَارًّا بِدَمٍ ، وَلاَ فَارًّا بِخَرْبَةٍ .

Narrated Said (RA)
Abu Shuraih said, "When 'Amr bin Said was sending the troops to Makkah (to fight 'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair) I said to him, 'O chief! Allow me to tell you what the Prophet said on the day following the conquests of Makkah. My ears heard and my heart comprehended, and I saw him with my own eyes, when he said it. He glorified and praised Allah and then said, "Allah and not the people has made Makkah a sanctuary. So anybody who has belief in Allah and the Last Day (i.e. a Muslim) should neither shed blood in it nor cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting is allowed in Makkah as Allah's Apostle did fight (in Makkah), tell him that Allah gave permission to His Apostle, but He did not give it to you. The Prophet added: Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the conquest) and today (now) its sanctity is the same (valid) as it was before. So it is incumbent upon those who are present to convey it (this information) to those who are absent." Abu- Shuraih was asked, "What did 'Amr reply?" He said 'Amr said, "O Abu Shuraih! I know better than you (in this respect). Makkah does not give protection to one who disobeys (Allah) or runs after committing murder, or theft (and takes refuge in Makkah).

Ameer Muawiya (RA), during his life time as a Khalifa, called representatives from various states and asked them to nominate his successor. Somehow his son Yazid was nominated as his successor and Ameer Muawiya made people to accept his son's nomination through his governors. Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, who was in Madina, did not accept the Khilafat of Yazid and went to Makkah where he started mobilizing people in his favour. Amr bin Said, on the directions of Yazid, decided to send his army to Makkah against Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. It is at this moment that Abu Shuraih, the famous companion of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), narrated this Hadith to Amr bin Said. This shows the degree of faith and the courage of Abu Shuraih how he dared to convey the truthfull message he had heard from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), fearlessly in front of the despotic ruler. In this Hadith it is said that Allah has made Makkah as the sanctuary where shedding of blood and cutting of trees is strictly forbidden for ever. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was temporarily allowed to fight there on the occasion of the victory of Makkah and then fighting in Makkah was forbidden forever as it was before. Abu Shuraih told this to Amr bin Said because the latter was planning to fight with Abdullan bin Az-Zubair in Makkah. Abu Shuraih told this thing to Amr bin Said because he was told by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) to convey that message to those who were not present on that occasion, as is mentioned in this Hadith. Amr bin Said, as is usual practice of such people, did not pay any heed to what Abu Shuraih told him and instead misinterpreted the Hadith and went on with his plan. Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, whom Amr bin Said categorized with murderers and disobedient, was a great and highly pious companion of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Hadith No. 104
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْوَهَّابِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِى بَكْرَةَ عَنْ أَبِى بَكْرَةَ ذُكِرَ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قَالَ فَإِنَّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ - قَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَأَحْسِبُهُ قَالَ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ - عَلَيْكُمْ حَرَامٌ كَحُرْمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا فِى شَهْرِكُمْ هَذَا ، أَلاَ لِيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ مِنْكُمُ الْغَائِبَ . وَكَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ يَقُولُ صَدَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - كَانَ ذَلِكَ أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ مَرَّتَيْنِ

Narrated Abu Bakra (RA)
The Prophet said. No doubt your blood, property, the sub-narrator Muhammad thought that Abu Bakra had also mentioned and your honor (chastity), are sacred to one another as is the sanctity of this day of yours in this month of yours. It is incumbent on those who are present to inform those who are absent." (Muhammad the Subnarrator used to say, "Allah's Apostle told the truth.") The Prophet repeated twice: "No doubt! Haven't I conveyed Allah's message to you.

These are the quotations from the famous historical sermon of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) which he made on the occasion of Hajatul Wida (farewell Haj), in which he told his followers, the Muslims, to honor and safeguard the life, property and the honor of fellow Muslims, all these things are sacred. Another Hadith says:
المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه و يده
"A (true) Muslim is one by whose tongue and hands other Muslims remain safe."
Such are the teachings of Islam that it wants its followers to be highly civilized, polite and absolutely harmless to others. Hadhrat Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (RA) used to define humanity as "Humanity means not to cause even the least harm to others." To harm others is an attribute of the beasts, whosoever comes in their way gets attacked and harmed by them. The human beings should be different from beasts and always try not to harm anyone, that is what Islam teaches us. Islam not only stops us from harming other human beings but also strictly prohibits us from teasing the animals and even insects. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) informed us that he was shown a woman being punished in the hellfire because she had starved a cat to death. She had tied the cat with a rope and was neither giving it food nor allowing it to search of its own. To safeguard the life and property of others is self understood but what is meant by safeguarding the honor of others? It means not to harm the honor of others by way of back biting, slander, defamation etc. Islam has warned of severe punishment on such acts.

باب إِثْمِ مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَى النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم .
Chapter 38 : The sin of a person who attributes a lie to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
In the earlier chapter Imam Bukhari stressed on the need to propagate the teachings of the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith and now in this chapter he is warning us that this propagation is not an ordinary job but a job of extreme responsibility .

Hadith No. 105
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِىُّ بْنُ الْجَعْدِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعْبَةُ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِى مَنْصُورٌ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رِبْعِىَّ بْنَ حِرَاشٍ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيًّا يَقُولُ قَالَ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - لاَ تَكْذِبُوا عَلَىَّ ، فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَىَّ فَلْيَلِجِ النَّارَ

Narrated 'Ali (RA)
The Prophet said, "Do not tell a lie against me for whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then he will surely enter the Hell-fire."

The sayings of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) determine the Shariah, so it is highly important that extreme caution is exercised both while narrating the Hadith and accepting it. The Hadith quoted in this chapter has acted as a great deterrent for the narrators of Hadith right from the time of Sahaaba. The Sahaaba were highly cautious while narrating any Hadith. They always used to shiver while narrating any Hadith because of above quoted Hadith which in very clear terms says that those people who attribute a lie to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) will find their abode in hell fire. This Hadith is quite clear in saying that it includes all types of lies. Ibn Hajr says that those people are not correct who say that a lie can be attributed to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) if it conforms to Shariah in cases of Tarheeb (warning or scaring) and Targeeb (arousal of interest). Some people, on the other hand have taken another extreme view, they say that one who tells a lie about Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) will become a Kaafir. This view again is not accepted by the majority of Ulema who say that such an act is a great sin but not Kufr and the warning of hell fire does not mean that he will remain their for ever.

Hadith No. 106
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ جَامِعِ بْنِ شَدَّادٍ عَنْ عَامِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِلزُّبَيْرِ إِنِّى لاَ أَسْمَعُكَ تُحَدِّثُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - كَمَا يُحَدِّثُ فُلاَنٌ وَفُلاَنٌ . قَالَ أَمَا إِنِّى لَمْ أُفَارِقْهُ وَلَكِنْ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَىَّ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (RA)
I said to my father, 'I do not hear from you any narration (Hadith) of Allah s Apostle as I hear (his narrations) from so and so?" Az-Zubair replied. l was always with him (the Prophet) and I heard him saying "Whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then (surely) let him occupy, his seat in Hell-fire.

Abdullah bin Az-Zubair says that he asked his father why he was not used to narrate Hadith as other people do? This could imply that either his father had not heard Hadith from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) or had not got enough time in his blessed company. His father Hadhrat Zubair denies both these things and tells his son that he had heard enough Hadith from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and had spent enough time in his blessed company, but it was this Hadith, "Whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then (surely) let him occupy, his seat in Hell-fire", which was prevented him from narrating Hadith. This was the usual practice of most of the Sahaaba.

Hadith No. 107
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ قَالَ أَنَسٌ إِنَّهُ لَيَمْنَعُنِى أَنْ أُحَدِّثَكُمْ حَدِيثًا كَثِيرًا أَنَّ النَّبِىَّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قَالَ مَنْ تَعَمَّدَ عَلَىَّ كَذِبًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ

Narrated Anas (RA)
The fact which stops me from narrating a great number of Ahaadith to you is that the Prophet said: "Whoever tells a lie against me intentionally, then (surely) let him occupy his seat in Hell-fire."

Hadhrat Anas lived in the house of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and spent lot of time with him yet his practice was same as mentioned in this Hadith.

Hadith No. 108
حَدَّثَنَا مَكِّىُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ أَبِى عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ سَلَمَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِىَّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يَقُولُ مَنْ يَقُلْ عَلَىَّ مَا لَمْ أَقُلْ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ

Narrated Salma (RA)
I heard the Prophet saying, "Whoever (intentionally) ascribes to me what I have not said then (surely) let him occupy his seat in Hell-fire."

This Hadith also made Sahaaba and latter generations very cautious in narrating the Hadith. While narrating any Hadith, the Sahaaba tried their best to narrate the Hadith as per the words which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had himself said and also used to say at the end of the narration "أو كما قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم" "or just like Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said". This has always been debated by the Ulema whether to narrate the meaning of Hadith without quoting the exact words of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is permissible or not. Some people don't allow it while the majority are of the opinion that it is permissible.