Lesson From The Bukhari Sharief

باب حِفْظِ الْعِلْمِ
Chapter 42 : The memorization of the (religious) knowledge.

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
In earlier chapter Imam Bukhari stressed that one can continue learning even during nights. After learning the knowledge one needs to take measure to safeguard it from getting wasted because of forgetting. For this one needs to remain in touch with the means of learning as was done by Abu Huraira (RA).

Hadith No. 117
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِى مَالِكٌ عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ أَكْثَرَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ ، وَلَوْلاَ آيَتَانِ فِى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَا حَدَّثْتُ حَدِيثًا ، ثُمَّ يَتْلُو ( إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ ) إِلَى قَوْلِهِ ( الرَّحِيمُ ) إِنَّ إِخْوَانَنَا مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ كَانَ يَشْغَلُهُمُ الصَّفْقُ بِالأَسْوَاقِ ، وِإِنَّ إِخْوَانَنَا مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ كَانَ يَشْغَلُهُمُ الْعَمَلُ فِى أَمْوَالِهِمْ ، وَإِنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ كَانَ يَلْزَمُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بِشِبَعِ بَطْنِهِ وَيَحْضُرُ مَا لاَ يَحْضُرُونَ ، وَيَحْفَظُ مَا لاَ يَحْفَظُونَ .

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA)
People say that I have narrated many Ahaadith (The Prophet's narrations). Had it not been for two verses in the Qur'an, I would not have narrated a single Hadith, and the verses are:
"Verily those who conceal the clear sign and the guidance which We have sent down . . . (up to) Most Merciful." (2:159-160). And no doubt our Muhajir (emigrant) brothers used to be busy in the market with their business (bargains) and our Ansari brothers used to be busy with their property (agriculture). But I (Abu Huraira) used to stick to Allah's Apostle contented with what will fill my stomach and I used to attend that which they used not to attend and I used to memorize that which they used not to memorize.

Abu Huraira (RA) embraced Islam after the battle of Khyber i.e., about 7th year after Hijrah and as such got the chance of being in company of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) for just three and a half years. Yet he is among those Sahaaba who have narrated maximum number of Ahaadith from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). Some people raised eye brows over this thing saying that though Abu Huraira (RA) got less time with Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), yet he is narrating so many Ahaadith. In this Hadith, Abu Huraira (RA) is answering those people and defending his point. He says that those who had migrated from Makkah alongwith Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) called Muhajireen used to remain busy in trade as many of them were businessmen and local Madinites, called Ansaar, were mostly farmers and they used to remain busy in their respective fields. Abu Huraira did not involve himself in any of such activities but remained glued to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and his only job was to listen and memorise Hadith. May a times he didn't get anything to eat and used to fall unconscious because of hunger but he would not leave the company of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) lest he might miss any Hadith.

Hadith No. 118
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ أَبِى بَكْرٍ أَبُو مُصْعَبٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِى ذِئْبٍ عَنْ سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِىِّ عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، إِنِّى أَسْمَعُ مِنْكَ حَدِيثًا كَثِيرًا أَنْسَاهُ . قَالَ ابْسُطْ رِدَاءَكَ فَبَسَطْتُهُ . قَالَ فَغَرَفَ بِيَدَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ ضُمُّهُ فَضَمَمْتُهُ فَمَا نَسِيتُ شَيْئًا بَعْدَهُ . حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِى فُدَيْكٍ بِهَذَا أَوْ قَالَ غَرَفَ بِيَدِهِ فِيهِ .

Narrated Ibrahim bin Al-Mundhir (RA)
Ibn Abi Fudaik narrated the same as above (Hadith...117) but added that the Prophet had moved his hands as if filling them with something and then he emptied them in the Rida' of Abu Huraira.

This Hadith further explains the reason why there are more Ahaadith narrated by Abu Huraira (RA). He says that he used to forget Hadith after listening them. One day he complained to Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about it. Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told him to open his blanket. Abu Huraira opened his blanket and Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) closed his fists as if there was something in them and placed the fists in the opened up blanket of Abu Huraira and asked him to close it. Abu Huraira (RA) did the same and from that day onwards Abu Huraira did not forget any Hadith. It was the result of this act of Rasulullah (RA) along with his Dua for Abu Huraira (RA) that latter did not forget Hadith for the rest of his life. This Hadith shows that doing such acts is Sunnat of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and this thing is practiced by spiritual saints with their students.

Hadith No. 119
حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِى أَخِى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِى ذِئْبٍ عَنْ سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِىِّ عَنْ أَبِى هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ حَفِظْتُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وِعَاءَيْنِ ، فَأَمَّا أَحَدُهُمَا فَبَثَثْتُهُ ، وَأَمَّا الآخَرُ فَلَوْ بَثَثْتُهُ قُطِعَ هَذَا الْبُلْعُومُ .

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA)
I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah's Apostle . I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).

Abu Huraira says that he had learned two things from Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), out of these he spread one thing among the people and if he would reveal the other thing, his pharynx would be cut. Ulema say that the one thing which Abu Huraira (RA) revealed to the people were those Ahaadith which were regarding the beliefs, Halaal and Haraam, historicall events and Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh). The other thing which he did not reveal were about the afflictions or Fitnas which this Ummah was going to face. Had he revealed that, people would have gone against him and teased him. Two invocation which he used to make, support this view, viz.,

اللهم اقبضني إليك قبل الستين
"O Allah! Lift me towards you before 60 Hijra".
نعوذ بالله من أمارة الصبيان
"I seek refuge of Allah from the governance of children".
Yazid became the khalifah in 60 Hijra and Abu Huraira (RA) died one year before that, i.e., in 59 Hijra. These two invocations show that Abu Huraira (RA) had been informed by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) about the happenings.
Another set of scholars called spiritual Sufi saints were of the opinion that the other thing which Abu Huraira (RA) did not reveal was the spiritual secrets which were above the level of understanding of common people, that is why he did not reveal them.

باب الإِنْصَاتِ لِلْعُلَمَاءِ
Chapter 43 : Listening to religious scholars with silence.

Purpose of Tarjamatul Baab
There is a Hadith on the authority of Ibn Abbas (RA) in which he says that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that he should not preach while people are busy in their routine work. From this Hadith people thought that probably it might not be permissible to preach while people are busy. By establishing this title for this chapter, Imam Bukhari wants to remove this confusion and convey that at times it is permissible to ask people to keep quiet so that they can listen to the speech of learned scholars.

Hadith No. 120
حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِى عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُدْرِكٍ عَنْ أَبِى زُرْعَةَ عَنْ جَرِيرٍ أَنَّ النَّبِىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لَهُ فِى حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ اسْتَنْصِتِ النَّاسَ فَقَالَ لاَ تَرْجِعُوا بَعْدِى كُفَّارًا يَضْرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رِقَابَ بَعْضٍ

Narrated Jarir (RA)
The Prophet said to me during Hajjat-al-Wida': Let the people keep quiet and listen. Then he said (addressing the people), "Do not (become infidels) revert to disbelief after me by striking the necks (cutting the throats) of one another (killing each other)."

During Hajatul Vida (the last Haj performed by Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)), Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) told Jarir to ask the people to keep quiet. Then Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) advised the people not to indulge in such activities which resemble infidels, after he leaves this world. Ulema have given two versions of its meaning, first version says that by this Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) meant that Muslims should neither fight with another nor should they tease other fellow Muslims like infidels do. Second version is that he (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) meant that Muslims should not turn infidels after him.