Lesson From The Bukhari Sharief

  كتاب الوضوء

The Book of Ablution

 بسم الله الرحمان الرحيمباب مَا جَاءَ فِى الْوُضُوءِ .

وَقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى ( إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ ) قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَيَّنَ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أَنَّ فَرْضَ الْوُضُوءِ مَرَّةً مَرَّةً ، وَتَوَضَّأَ أَيْضًا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَثَلاَثًا ، وَلَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ ، وَكَرِهَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ الإِسْرَافَ فِيهِ وَأَنْ يُجَاوِزُوا فِعْلَ النَّبِىِّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم .  

Chapter 1 : What has come (in revelation) regarding ablution? And the saying of Allah “O you who believe! When you intend to offer prayer, wash your faces and your forearms up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles”. (5:6) Abu Abdullah (RA) said, “The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) had made obvious that ablution is obligatory to wash the (above mentioned) body parts once. And the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) also did perform the ablution by washing (these) parts twice and thrice, but he never washed them more than three times. And the learned scholars detested exceeding the limits set by the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) while performing ablution, and to surpass the action of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Purpose of Tarjamatul BaabIt is said in a Hadith, as quoted in Muslim,أطهور شطر الإيمان  that cleanliness (Tahaarah) is half of the faith. The cleanliness or purity that Shariah demands, includes purity of both the interior (Baatin) and the exterior (Zaahir) of a person. Allah likes His bondsmen to keep their hearts and minds pure from all evils like Shirk (associating partners), Kufr (disbelief), Kibr (arrogance), Hirth (greed), Shahwat (misuse of sexual desires) and other such bestial characteristics. Shariah also demands from the bondsmen to keep their exterior i.e., body, clothes and place of living clean. For this reason Wudu or ablution was made obligatory by Shariah before offering Salaah. A believer has to offer Salaah five times a day, which are obligatory for him in addition to additional Salaah or Nafl Salaah which are optional for him.  

 Method of performing ablution as per SunnahIstinja: If one passes urine or stools, he should clean his private parts preferably with water.  If water is not available, clay can be used to wipe off the impurity. It is more preferable to use clay first and then water. Since these days toilets are made such that clay will block the drainage system, so Ulema have give permission to use tissue paper instead of clay. If somebody has performed ablution and then passes flatus only and no urine or stools, and then he intends to perform ablution, he need not to perform Istinja again but only ablution. Wudu (Ablution)After performing Istinja, if needed, one should intend to do Wudu (i.e., make Niyyat) and recite Bismillah-ir-Rahmaan-ir-Rahim and then wash his hands three times, then rinse his mouth three times, clean his nose after putting handful of water in it three times, wash his face from hair line on forehead up to just below the chin and from one ear lobule to other three times, wash his right hand up to and including elbow three times, wash his left hand up to and including elbow three times, rub his head with wet hands (i.e., Masah) once and then wash his right foot including ankle and then left foot including ankle.  

Dua after ablutionأللهم اجعلني من التوابين و اجعلني من المتطهرين

O Allah! Make me among those who repent and among those who are clean.

أشهد أن لا إله ألا الله و أشهد أن محمد عبده و رسوله

I testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is His slave and messenger.  

Faraidh-i-Wudu (obligartory things in Wudu)

There are four things which are Fardh (obligatory) in Wudu. All these four things are mentioned in the verse of Al-Qur’an quoted in Tarjamatul Baab, viz.,1. To wash the face.2. To wash the hands up to and including elbows.3. To perform Masah of head.4. To wash the feet including ankles. 

Why these four things only?

Ulema have given various explanations why only the washing of these four parts of body has been made mandatory in Wudu and not other parts. Basically the aim of Shariah is to get perfect Taharah (cleanliness) from the bondsman. The sequence of sins which a man commits usually starts first with eyes, i.e., he looks at a thing about which he then gets evil intentions. After looking at that thing with evil intentions, he intends to catch that thing with hands, if he fails in doing so, he then uses his brain as to how he should achieve that thing and finally uses his feet to reach that thing. The Qur’an uses the same sequence, asks to wash the face first which includes eyes, then hands, then perform Masah of head and finally to wash the feet. All other parts of body are subservient to these four parts as these are mainluy used for committing sins. Bondman is also asked to seek forgiveness from Allah for the sins committed by these organs while washing them in Wudu.

  باب لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ  

Chapter  2 : No Salaah is accepted without ablution. P

urpose of Tarjamatul Baab

The words of this chapter are actually part of a Hadith which has been collected by Imam Muslim (RA). There is consensus among the Ummah that no Salaah will be accepted without Tahaarah (ritual cleanliness as described by Shariah i.e., Wudu or Gusul, whatever is indicated), may it be obligatory (Fardh) Salaah or optional (Nafl) Salaah of journey or otherwise.  

Hadith No. 133

 حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْحَنْظَلِىُّ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ عَنْ هَمَّامِ بْنِ مُنَبِّهٍ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صلى الله عليه وسلم -  لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةُ مَنْ أَحْدَثَ حَتَّى يَتَوَضَّأَ  . قَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ حَضْرَمَوْتَ مَا الْحَدَثُ يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ فُسَاءٌ أَوْ ضُرَاطٌ .   

Narrated Abu Huraira (RA)

Allah's Apostle said, "The prayer of a person who does Hadath Asgar (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution." A person from Hadaramout asked Abu Huraira, "What is 'Hadath'?" Abu Huraira replied, " 'Hadath' means the passing of wind from the anus."

CommentsWhat is Hadath (حدث)?

Hads as per Shariah is of two types viz., Hadath-i-Asgarحدث اصغر  and Hadath-i-Akbarحدث أكبر  Hadath-i-Asgar means that Hadath which makes ablution mandatory before offering Salaah. If someone, who does not have had Hadath-i-Akbar, passes stools, urine or wind is said to have got Hadath-i-Asgar. Bleeding, sleeping lying down in such a way that gut sphincter goes loose, becoming unconscious, vomiting mouthful of vomitus, laughing in Salaah also break Wudu and one has to make a fresh ablution if he intends to offer Salaah after getting any of these things. Passing of urine, stools and flatus breaks Wudu, this has been agreed by all scholars; whether other things break Wudu or not, scholars are of different opinions. If someone makes ablution, offers Salaah and if during Salaah he gets Hadath-i-Asgar like passing of winds per anus or any of the above mentioned things, he has to come out of the Salaah, make new ablution and then  repeat his Salaah.  

What is Hadath-i-Akbar?

It is that Hadath which makes ritual ablution i.e., Gusul Waajib (mandatory). 

Gusul (ritual ablution)

There are three things that are obligatory in Gusul (ritual ablution) viz.,1. Rinsing of mouth with water three times.2. Putting water in nose up to the soft area three times and cleaning it. 3. Pouring water all over the body so that not a single hair remains dry.

 Gusul as per Sunnah

First of all clean the private parts with water, also clean those parts of the body where there is impurity like semen etc. Make the Niyyah (intention) of ablution, recite Bismillah and wash hands up to the wrists , then put water in mouth three times, then in nose three times and clean it, then wash face three times in such a way that everything gets wet from one ear tragus to other and also from hairline on forehead up to below the chin, then wash right arm up to and including the elbow, after this wash left arm up to and including the elbow three time each, then make Masah on head i.e., rub the head with wet hands keeping the fingers open and taking both hands from forehead to back of the head.Pour water on head first, then on right side and then left, preferably three times so that not a single hair of the body remains dry and also massage the body nicely with the hands.Wash both feet along with the ankles, first right and then left. 

What makes Gusul obligatory?

Following things make Gusul obligatory:1. Discharge of Semen with or without sexual intercourse.2. Sexual intercourse in such a way that male organ enters female organ even if there is no discharge of semen.3. Nifas (period of parturition once it ends).4. Observing wetness (wet dream) by a male on his private organ after getting up from sleep.One cannot offer Salaah after getting any of these things unless he or she takes a bath (Gusul) or performs Tayammum (as per Shariah ruling).Note: The other necessary issue related to the things that make Gusul obligatory upon one can be seen in the books on this topic. 

The statement of Abu Huraira (RA)

Hadhrat Abu Huraira (RA) said that Hadath is passing of wind with or without sound. He said so because the questioner asked him about Hadath in Salaah, as in Salaah usually passing of wind is usual form of Hadath, otherwise Hadath includes other things also.